About Measurements

Measurements are conducted with reliable devices. Below you can find the methodological process for each physical fitness parameter.


Body height: Body height is measured to the nearest 0.1 cm by using a stadiometer (Charder HM-200P, Portstad). Students stand barefeet on the stadiometer platform. They remove any hair ornaments, jewelery, buns, or braids from the top of the head and stand with the heels together and toes apart. The back of the head, shoulder blades, buttocks, and heels make contact with the backboard of the stadiometer.

Body weight: Body mass is measured to the nearest 0.1 kg by using a scale (Tanita WB-100MA, Tokyo, Japan). Students stand on the scale without wearing shoes, excess clothing and with minimal movement. Hands remain by their side.

Percentage of Body Fat: The percentage of body fat is calculated with a Harpenten caliper (British Indicators, Ltd., UK) by using the 4 site method of Durnin and Womersley (1974). This method is performed by the calculation of body fat after summing the four skinfold sites of triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac.    


Flexibility: Flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles is assessed by using the sit and reach test. This test is very important because tightness in this area is related to lumbar lordosis, forward pelvic tilt and lower back pain.

30m sprint test: 30-m sprint performance is evaluated on an outdoor court. Each subject performs three trials with 5 minutes of recovery and the best is kept for further analysis. Timing gates (Witty; Microgate, Bolzano, Italy) are set up at 0 (starting line) and 30 m (finishing line). The participants uses a two-point start standing with the front leg 0.5 m behind the starting line and sprint along the runway with maximal effort.

505 agility test: 505 agility test is evaluated on an indoor court. Timing gate (Witty, Microgate, Bolzano, Italy) is used to measure performance and set up 10 meters (second line marker) after the starting line (first line marker). Students use a two-point start standing and run with maximal effort, pass the timing gate and 5 meters after the timing gate (15 meters from the starting line-third line marker), change direction and finish in the timing gate. The time is recorded for 10 meters (10 to 15 m and 15 to 10m markers).

Vertical countermovement jump:

Vertical countermovement jump performance is assessed with an optical measurement system (Optojump next, Microgate, Bolzano, Italy), according to the protocol of Bosco et al (1983) by measuring flight time. The students perform 3 attempts with 30 s of recovery and the best is kept for further analysis. The participants stand between the bars of the measurement system with their hands akimbo. They bend the knees till a knee flexion of 90 degrees and jump as high as possible. They land with their feet in a flexed position.

Vertical countermovement jump (free arms): This jump follows the rules of the previous jump but the arms of the students are free and performance is usually enhanced.

Hand grip strength measurement: Hand grip strength measurement is assessed with a hand grip digital dynamometer (Takei, Japan). Students stand in an upright position and hold the dynamometer in the hand to be tested. The angle in the elbow is 90 degrees. Students are tested in both hands. When the student is ready, squeezes the dynamometer with maximum isometric effort. This effort is maintained for about 3 seconds.